The 'Lost In Translation' actress - who attended the 64th annual theatre event with husband Ryan Reynolds - picked up the gong for Best Featured Actress in a Play for her role in 'A View From the Bridge' on New York's Broadway.
She said: "Ever since I was a little girl, I wanted to be on Broadway. And here I am."
Meanwhile, Academy Award-winning actor Denzel Washington won the Best Actor in a Play accolade for his part in 'Fences', while co-star Viola Davis picked up the award for Best Actress in a Play.
Denzel revealed: "My mother always said man gives you the award and God gives you the reward. I guess I got both tonight."
Scarlett and Denzel were not the only Hollywood stars picking up awards for their theatre work.
Catherine Zeta-Jones - who famously showcased her musical talents in the 2002 film adaptation of 'Chicago' - won the Best Actress in a Musical award for her portrayal of Desiree in 'A Little Night Music'.
'Red' was the biggest winner of the night, picking up six honours, including the coveted Best Play accolade, while 'Memphis' claimed the Best Musical prize.
Tony Awards 2010 full list of winners:
Best Musical: 'Memphis'
Best Play: 'Red'
Best Musical Revival: 'La Cage aux Folles'
Best Play Revival: 'Fences'
Best Featured Actress in a Play: Scarlett Johansson, 'A View From the Bridge'
Best Featured Actor in a Play: Eddie Redmayne, 'Red'
Best Actress in a Play: Viola Davis, 'Fences
Best Actor in a Play: Denzel Washington, 'Fences'
Best Actress in a Musical: Catherine Zeta-Jones, 'A Little Night Music'
Best Actor in a Musical: Douglas Hodge, 'La Cage aux Folles'
Best Featured Actress in a Musical: Katie Finneran, 'Promises, Promises'
Best Featured Actor in a Musical: Levi Kreis, 'Million Dollar Quartet'
Best Choreography: Bill T. Jones, 'Fela!'
Best Direction of a Play: Michael Grandage, 'Red'
Best Direction of a Musical: Terry Johnson, 'La Cage aux Folles'
Best Book: 'Memphis'
Best Orchestrations: 'Memphis'
Best Original Score: 'Memphis'
Best Scenic Design: 'Red'
Best Lighting Design: 'Red'
Best Sound Design: 'Red'
Best Scenic Design of a Musical: 'American Idiot'
Best Lighting Design of a Musical: 'American Idiot'
Best Sound Design of a Musical: 'Fela!'
Best Costume Design of a Musical: 'Fela!'
Best Costume Design of a Play: 'The Royal Family'
Honorary Award: Angela Lansbury, American Theater Wing's Honorary Chairman
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