Frontman Mick Jagger introduced a jumpsuit-clad Gaga to join him on Gimme Shelter at their fifth and final official 50 and Counting show at New Jersey's Prudential Center, and the duo shared verses and danced together.
Mayer and fellow guitarist Gary Clark, Jr. also joined the Stones for Going Down, while The Black Keys followed with the Bo Diddley classic Who Do You Love?, and former Stones guitarist Mick Taylor also made an appearance.
Springsteen then thrilled the crowd with a version of Tumbling DICe, with Jagger joking that the New Jersey native had "walked to the show".
The most emotional moment of the night came when Jagger dedicated Wild Horses to the victims of the school massacre in Newtown, Connecticut, telling fans, "I just wanted to take a minute and send our love and condolences to those who lost their loved ones yesterday."
Wrapping up their mini-trek, Jagger told the crowd, "This is our last show... of the 50th anniversary tour. Hope to see you again soon."
The band's comeback is set to stretch into next year (13) - the rockers are playing California's Coachella festival in April (13).